It’s been recent since the Noble prize winners were announced. To the people who didn’t follow the live feeds here is an insight on the people who won the Noble prize and their contributions to the world.
Overview of The Noble Prize Receivers in 2016:
Physiology (or) Medicine:
Yoshinori Ohsumi on 3/10/2016 received the noble award for Physiology and Medicine. Yoshinori Ohsumi born on February 9-1945 in Fukuoka Japan, He received his B.Sci in 1967 and D.Sci in 1974 from university of Tokyo. He spent his time as post-doctorate fellow at Rockefeller, university in New York City. He served as a professor from 1977-2014 after his retirement he started to serve as a professor at institute of innovative research institute.
He has received the following awards
- Fujihara award, Fujihara foundation of science (2005).
- Japan Academy Prize, Japan Academy (2006)
- Asahi prize, Asahi Shimbun (2009)
- Kyoto prize in Basic sciences (2012)
- International prize for Biology (2015)
- Keio medical Science prize (2015)
- Rosenstiel Award (2015)
- Wiley prize in Biomedical sciences (2016)
Yoshinori Ohsumi was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in Autophagy. Autophagy is the orderly degradation and recycling of cellular components. Yoshinori Ohsumi just discovered the mechanism of autophagy. Ohsumi’s discoveries led to a new paradigm in our understanding of how the cell recycles its content. His discoveries opened the path to understanding the fundamental importance of autophagy in many physiological processes, such as in the adaptation to starvation or response to infection.
The Nobel Prize for Physics in 2016 is shared by David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz for their discovery of Topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter. Kosterlitz and Thouless have studied phenomena that arise in a flat world – on surfaces or inside extremely thin layers that can be considered two-dimensional, compared to the three dimensions (length, width and height) with which reality is usually described.Haldane has also studied matter that forms threads so thin they can be considered one-dimensional.Their discoveries have brought about breakthroughs in the theoretical understanding of matter’s mysteries and created new perspectives on the development of innovative materials.
Their Discovery has opened up a door to an unknown world, where matter can assume strange states. They together revealed the secrets of exotic matters; they have used advanced mathematical methods to study unusual phases, or states of matter, such as superconductors, Super-fluids or thin magnetic films. Thanks to their pioneering work, the hunt is now on for new and exotic phases of matter.
The Noble Prizes for Chemistry was awarded to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa “for the design and synthesis of molecular machines” on 5-10-2016. The groundbreaking steps taken by Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Fraser Stoddart and Ben Feringa in developing molecular machinery have resulted in a toolbox of chemical structures that are used by researchers around the world to build increasingly advanced creations. One of the most striking examples is a molecular robot that can grasp and connect amino acids, built in 2013.
They developed the world’s smallest machines. These molecular machines are thousand times smaller and thinner than a hair strand. They succeed in linking molecules together to form tiny lift to motors. Other researchers have connected molecular motors to long polymers, these polymers tangle together when exposed to light if they find a way to retrieve this energy there could be a new battery.
The noble prize for peace is awarded to Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos, for his outstanding efforts to bring the 50-year long civil war to an end. A war that has cost the lives of at least 220 000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people. The award should also be seen as a tribute to the Colombian people who, despite great hardships and abuses, have not given up hope of a just peace, and to all the parties who have contributed to the peace process. This tribute is paid, not least, to the representatives of the countless victims of the civil war.
President Santos was constantly negotiating between the Colombian government and the FARC guerrillas and has constantly moving up the process forward. President Santos was sure that the accord was controversial and still asked for a referendum but the outcome was not what Santos expected. The fact that majority of people said no to the peace accord the noble committee emphasizes the importance of the peace pact are inviting broad based national dialogue aimed at advancing peace process.
The Prize for Economic sciences was awarded to Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmström for their contributions to “contract theory” on 10/10/16. Modern economies are held together by innumerable contracts. The new theoretical tools created by Hart and Holmström are valuable to the understanding of real-life contracts and institutions, as well as potential pitfalls in contract design. Society’s many contractual relationships include those between shareholders and top executive management, an insurance company and car owners, or a public authority and its suppliers.
Contract theory provides us with a general means of understanding contract design. One of the theory’s goals is to explain why contracts have various forms and designs. Another goal is to help us work out how to draw up better contracts, thereby shaping better institutions in society. Should providers of public services, such as schools, hospitals, or prisons, be publicly or privately owned? Should teachers, healthcare workers, and prison guards be paid fixed salaries or should their pay be performance-based? To what extent should managers be paid through bonus programmes or stock options?
Contract theory does not necessarily provide definitive or unique answers to these questions. However, the power of the theory is that it enables us to think clearly about the issues involved and help us understand the potential pitfalls when designing new contracts.
The noble prize for literature was awarded to Bob Dylan for “creating new poetic expression within the great American song tradition”. Bob Dylan was born on May 24, 1941 in Duluth, Minnesota. He grew in a middle class Jewish family. As a teenager he played in various bands, his interest for music deepened especially in American folk music and blues. Dylan moved to New York in 1961 and began to perform in clubs and cafés in Greenwich Village. He met the record producer John Hammond with whom he signed a contract for his debut album, called Bob Dylan (1962). In the following years he recorded a number of albums which have had a tremendous impact on popular music: Bringing It All Back Home and High-way 61 Revisited in 1965, Blonde On Blonde in 1966 and Blood On The Tracks in 1975. His productivity continued in the following decades, resulting in masterpieces like Oh Mercy (1989), Time Out Of Mind (1997) and Modern Times (2006).
Dylan’s tours in 1965 and 1966 attracted a lot of attention. For a period he was accompa-nied by film maker D. A. Pennebaker, who documented life around the stage in what would come to be the movie Dont Look Back (1967). Dylan has recorded a large number of albums revolving around topics like the social conditions of man, religion, politics and love. The lyrics have continuously been published in new editions, under the title Lyrics. As an artist, he is strikingly versatile; he has been active as painter, actor and scriptwriter.
Besides his large production of albums, Dylan has published experimental work like Taran-tula (1971) and the collection Writings and Drawings (1973). He has written the autobiog-raphy Chronicles (2004), which depicts memories from the early years in New York and which provides glimpses of his life at the center of popular culture. Since the late 1980s, Bob Dylan has toured persistently, an undertaking called the “Never-Ending Tour”. Dylan has the status of an icon. His influence on contemporary music is profound, and he is the object of a steady stream of secondary literature.